Final battle of the second Jacobite revolt. The army of the Younger Pretender, Charles Edward Stuart, had marched deep into northern England, but had been forced back into Scotland, until battle was jointed on Culloden Moor (Inverness-shire). The English army, led by the duke of Cumberland, was a well disciplined force of 8,000, while the Jacobite army, somewhere between 5,000 and 8,000 strong, was a mix of French, Irish and Scottish troops, with not training at acting together. The battle was turned by the quality of the English musketry. Although the Jacobite charge broke the English first line, that merely exposed them to the second line of muskets, whose fire forced them to retreat. The English cavalry was then sent in, and shattered the remains of the Jacobite army, which lost 2,000 men and all of its equipment. Charles Stuart was left with no option but to abandon Scotland, and return into exile. Culloden was the last land battle fought on British soil. The defeat of the Jacobite revolt led to the breaking of the power of the Highland clans.