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Third son of George II, created duke of Cumberland in 1726. His military career was largely undistinguished, although he fought in both the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years War. He was present at Dettingen (1743), and rose to be captain-general of all British land forces (1745). His most notable success was at the battle of Culloden (1746), the final defeat of the second Jacobite revolt, after which he began the harrying of the Scottish highlands, a determined attempt to end the power of the Scottish clans. He returned to Holland in 1747, and in the following year was defeated with an allied army by Marshal de Saxe at Laeffelt (1748). During the Seven Years War, he was put in command of the Army of Observation responsible for Hanover, but was defeated by the French at Hastenbeck, after which he signed the Treat of Kloster-Zeven (8 September 1757), allowing the French to occupy Hanover. The treaty was not accepted in Britain, and George II was furious with his son's actions. The duke returned to England, where he resigned from all of his military posts

See Also
Books on the Seven Years's War
Subject Index: Seven Years' War

JR, 22 October 2000